What does it mean for information to be missing?


Expectation:  belief about (or mental picture of) the future

  • Expectations are predictions about the future based on mental models derived from past experiences
  • “Mental models” integrate past observations, noting that certain pieces of information will be present.
  • All descriptions of cars will include make and model.
  • The make and model must be some value, but could be any. (Some but any)
  • When information is missing (an expectation has been violated), there are three possible explanations:
  • Option 1: The mental model contained an error, or was the wrong one for the scenario (incorrect conceptualization)
  • Option 2: The mental model was partially correct for a subset of the possible domain observations – it should be widened to integrate the new information (incomplete conceptualization, discovered with new information)
  • Option 3: The mental model is correct. Exploring the mismatch should focus on the information source.

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