Expectation: belief about (or mental picture of) the future
- Expectations are predictions about the future based on mental models derived from past experiences
- “Mental models” integrate past observations, noting that certain pieces of information will be present.
- All descriptions of cars will include make and model.
- The make and model must be some value, but could be any. (Some but any)
- When information is missing (an expectation has been violated), there are three possible explanations:
- Option 1: The mental model contained an error, or was the wrong one for the scenario (incorrect conceptualization)
- Option 2: The mental model was partially correct for a subset of the possible domain observations – it should be widened to integrate the new information (incomplete conceptualization, discovered with new information)
- Option 3: The mental model is correct. Exploring the mismatch should focus on the information source.