- “Missing Is Useful”: Missing Values in Cost-Sensitive Decision Trees
- A Formal Treatment of Missing and Imprecise Information
- Missing information (applicable and inapplicable) in relational databases
- Orchard, T., Woodbury, M.A., 1972. A missing information principle: theory and applications. Proceedings of the Sixth Berkeley Symposium, Vol. 1, pp. 697-715.
- HL7 Null Flavors
- CDC Common Data Elements draft guide, subsection “Missing Values”